Deal Formation

It is a clayey, calcareous, shelly, glauconitic (10-20 percent) silt. Its colors range from greenish-gray and gray-green to brownish-gray and light gray. It is rich in calcareous and siliceous microfossils. The matrix mineralogy shows a high calcite component, except in the lower part of the formation which is within a calcite dissolution interval. In the lower half of the formation quartz is predominant.

Hornerstown Formation

Glauconite sand that is silty and slightly to moderately clayey and contains scattered shell beds. Glauconite approximately 90 percent to 95 percent of the sand fraction and quartz 5 percent to 10 percent. Near the top of unit, silt-filled burrows are present. Lower, the unit is commonly laminated with silty sand and moderately clayey sand. Silt and clay matrix is calcareous. Uniformly a dark-greenish-gray. Interpreted to be marine in origin. The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary is considered to lie within the formation. Rarely occurs in outcrop and where shown on the map is covered by colluvium along the stream valley bluffs. Ranges between 10 and 50 feet in thickness.

Vincentown Formation

Glauconitic sand that ranges from slightly silty to moderately silty and slightly to moderately clayey. Dominant constituent is subrounded to subangular clear quartz sand that ranges from medium to fine grained. Fine-grained glauconite is a secondary constituent, which ranges from 5 percent in the clayey zones to 15 percent where cleaner. Towards bottom of unit, glauconite percentages increase to about 50 percent of the sand fraction. Silty and clayey zones are thin to thick laminae ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 ft thick. Olive gray to dark-yellowish-brown in zones where iron cement is present. Interpreted to be marine in origin. Rarely occurs in outcrop and is covered by colluvium along the stream valley bluffs where shown on the map. Ranges from 50 to 100 ft in thickness in the subsurface and less than 50 ft thick where it is cut by younger deposits updip.

What is a fossil?

If you think you may have found a Delaware dinosaur or any unusual fossil, the scientists at the Delaware Geological Survey at the University of Delaware, Newark campus would like to see it. It could provide important information on the geologic history of the First State.

B20 Stratigraphy of the Post-Potomac Cretaceous-Tertiary Rocks of Central Delaware

This Bulletin presents the subsurface stratigraphy of the post-Potomac Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of central Delaware, between the Chesapeake and Delaware (C & D) Canal and Dover. Geophysical log correlations supported by biostratigraphic and lithologic data from boreholes in Delaware and nearby New Jersey provide the basis for the report.

B18 Clay and Clay-Size Mineral Composition of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Section, Test Well Je32-04, Central Delaware

This study complements Delaware Geological Survey Bulletin No. 17 and deals exclusively with clays and clay-size minerals. The cored section at the location of Je32-04 has been subdivided into 25 clay zones on the basis of major changes in trends and degree of crystallinity of clay minerals. The composition of clay minerals varies from zone to zone. These clay minerals have been identified: kaolinite, berthierine, chlorite, illite, smectite, chlorite/smectite, illite/smectite, glauconite/smectite, and glauconite pellets.

B17 Geological Studies of Cretaceous and Tertiary Section, Test Well Je32-04, Central Delaware

A cored well 1,422 feet (433 meters) deep drilled two miles southeast of Dover is the basis for this integrated study of the lithology and paleontology of the Cretaceous-Tertiary section in central Delaware. The section is subdivided into lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, chronostratigraphic, and heavy mineral units. Data and results are presented on a common base in three plates.

Coastal Plain Rock Units (Stratigraphic Chart)

The geology of Delaware includes parts of two geologic provinces: the Appalachian Piedmont Province and the Atlantic Coastal Plain Province. The Piedmont occurs in the hilly northernmost part of the state and is composed of crystalline metamorphic and igneous rocks. This chart summarizes the age and distribution of the geologic units that are recognized in the state by the Delaware Geological Survey.

Geologic History of the Delaware Coastal Plain

In Delaware, the oldest unit of the Atlantic Coastal Plain is the Potomac Formation. Sediment eroded from the Appalachian Mountains was deposited in rivers and swamps in a tropical climate along the margins of the forming ocean during the latter part of Early Cretaceous time, about 120 million years ago.